New Australian Taxa

Open-access, online, rapid taxonomy

ISSN: 2200-####

A new species of the open-holed trapdoor spider genus Aname (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Anamidae) from southern Western Australia

Mark S. Harvey (1,2), Mia J. Hillyer (1,2), Joel A. Huey (1,2,3,4) and Michael G. Rix (5)

(1) Department of Terrestrial Zoology, Western Australian Museum, Welshpool, Western Australia 6986, Australia.
(2) School of Biological Sciences, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia.
(3) Adjunct, School of Natural Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Western Australia 6027, Australia.
(4) Present address: Biologic Environmental Survey, East Perth, Western Australia 6004, Australia.
(5) Biodiversity and Geosciences Program, Queensland Museum, South Brisbane, Queensland 4101, Australia.

Abstract

The open-holed trapdoor spider genus Aname L. Koch, 1873 is endemic to Australia, and currently contains 49 named species. We describe a new species from the Malleee and Hampton bioregions of southern Western Australia, A. pulchella Harvey & Rix, sp. nov. We also supply sequence data for this species.

Publication date and citation

The open-holed trapdoor spider genus Aname L. Koch, 1873 is the most diverse anamid genus with 49 named species recorded from throughout Australia . The recent detection of a diagnostic morphological feature – the ventral asetose depression on the male pedipalpal tibia – and a comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis Harvey et al., 2018), confirms that the genus as currently recognised is monophyletic. Although two recent publications have described 20 new species from Western Australia (Harvey et al. 2012; Castalanelli et al. 2020; Harvey et al., submitted), there are numerous undescribed species that have been recognized using molecular and morphological data (Castalanelli et al. 2014; Harvey et al. 2018; MSH, JAH, unpublished data).

 

To further document the genus Aname in Australia, we here describe a new species from southern Western Australia.

 

This project represents a contribution to Taxonomy Australia (2020), a national initiative organised under the auspices of the Australian Academy of Science that brings together the taxonomic community to develop approaches that will significantly increase the rate at which new species are discovered, resolved and named, with a view to completely documenting the Australian biota with a generation.

Materials & Methods

The specimens examined in this study are lodged in the Western Australian Museum, Perth (WAM), and are preserved in 75% ethanol. Auto-montaged images were taken at different focal planes (ca. 20–30 images) with a Leica DFC500 digital camera attached to a Leica MZ16A stereo microscope, using Leica Application Suite (LAS) version 2.5.OR1 software.

 

Terminology follows Raven (1985a, 1985b) and Castalanelli et al. (2020). The following abbreviations are used: AME: anterior median eyes; ALE: anterior lateral eyes; PLE: posterior lateral eyes; PME: posterior median eyes. Pedipalp and leg measurements and ratios were calculated using the terminology and reference points defined by Castalanelli et al. (2020).

 

Morphological characters were scored using DELTA 1.4 (CSIRO, Canberra, Australia) (Dallwitz et al. 2010), which was also used to generate a natural language description that was subsequently edited further.

Acknowledgments

Part of this study was funded by the Gorgon Barrow Island Net Conservation Benefits Fund. The Fund is administered by the Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions and approved by the Minister for Environment after considering advice from the Gorgon Barrow Island Net Conservation Benefits Advisory Board. Additional funding was provided by the Australian Biological Resources Study Taxonomy Research Grants Scheme (ABRS Grant No. RG18-03). We thank Julianne Waldock and Sarah Comer for their collecting efforts.

Taxonomy

Aname pulchella Harvey & Rix, sp. nov.

ZooBank LSID: http://zoobank.org/EditNomenclaturalAct/#####

 

Holotype: AUSTRALIA: Western Australia: Madura Caravan Park, 31°54’02"S, 127°01’14"E, 12 September 2017, J.M. Waldock, M.J. Hillyer, M.S. Harvey (WAM T144388).

 

Paratype: Australia: Western Australia: 1 male, Madura Caravan Park, 31°54’02"S, 127°01’14"E, 10 September 2017, M.J. Hillyer (WAM T144353).

Big & hairy. Spines. 8 eyes. All that good stuff.

Other material: Australia: Western Australia: 1 male, Dundas Nature Reserve, Mt Andrew Track, 32°30’57"S, 122°51’45”E, dry pitfall trap, mallee, 24 October 2009, S. Comer (WAM T101551); 1 male, Dundas Nature Reserve, Mt Andrew Track, 32°30`56"S, 122°51`43"E, October 2009, dry pitfall, S. Comer (WAM T101556).

SEQUENCE DATA

Intraspecific genetic divergence for this species was low, reaching only 0.?% at COI.

 

ETYMOLOGY

The species epithet refers to the beauty of this species (pulchellus, Latin, diminutive of pulchra, beautiful, pretty, fine, lovely) (Brown 1956).

Figure 2. Aname pulchella Harvey & Rix, sp. nov., holotype male (WAM T144388): A, cephalothorax, dorsal; B, abdomen, dorsal; C, eyes, dorsal; D, fovea, dorsal; E, sternum, ventral; F, cephalothorax, ventral; G, abdomen, ventral; H–L, left pedipalp: H, prolateral view; I, retrolateral view; J, tibia and tarsus, prolateral view; K, tibia and tarsus, ventral view; L, tibia and tarsus, retrolateral view; M–P, left leg I: M, prolateral view; N, tibia I, prolateral view; O, tibia I, retrolateral view; P, metatarsus I, prolateral view. Scale lines = 2 mm.

Tympanocryptis einasleighensis sp. nov.

Einasleigh earless dragon

Holotype. QM J96318, male, Richmond Rd, north of Esmeralda, Queensland, Australia (-18.5672, 145.5626).

 

Paratypes. (7 specimens) NMV D77187, male, Richmond Rd, north of Esmeralda, Queensland, Australia (-18.5649, 142.5646); QM J96320, male, Richmond Rd, north of Esmeralda, Queensland, Australia (-18.5645, 142.5651); QM J96322, male, Richmond Rd, north of Esmeralda, Queensland, Australia (-18.5616, 142.5682); NMV D74081, female, Richmond Rd, north of Esmeralda, Queensland, Australia (-18.5619, 142.5678); QM J96319, female, Richmond Rd, north of Esmeralda, Queensland, Australia (-18.5675, 142.5625); QM J96321, female, Richmond Rd, north of Esmeralda, Queensland, Australia (-18.5645, 142.5651); NMV D77265, female, Thornborough Rd, south of Thornborough, Queensland, Australia (-16.9991, 145.0312).

Description of holotype. SVL 54 mm. A medium-sized Tympanocryptis, with a stocky shape; short limbs, a round body, long head and blunt snout. Dorsal scales heterogeneous, with scattered enlarged scales; weakly imbricate. Enlarged scales are weakly imbricate, strongly keeled with keel terminating in weak spine; posterior edge of scale very narrowly raised. Small dorsal scales weakly imbricate, weakly to strongly keeled without terminating spine. Ventral scales weakly keeled. Indistinct, broken dorsolateral stripes running from the shoulders to pelvis. Vertebral stripe absent. Indistinct, diffuse crossbands between neck and base of tail, narrower than background colour. Approximately 12 dark bands on tail, narrower than intervening pale bands. Flanks with scattered cream flecks on darker background; lacking distinct lateral stripe. Dorsal head patterning weak and indistinct; lacks pale supra-orbital bar. Ventral patterning present; fine grey speckling under chin, extending posteriorly onto throat; lacks speckling on torso. Pre-anal pores 2, femoral pores absent; gular fold present.

Variation. Table 1 (as Species C). Vertebral, dorsolateral and lateral stripes usually absent. Broken, indistinct dorsolateral stripes in some individuals from the neck up to 1/3 of the way down the tail. If dorsal patterning present, consists of 5-6 dark narrow crossbands, poorly defined a much narrower than intervening pale background colour. Dorsal surface of head weakly or not patterned, sometimes with faint pale supra-ocular bar. Dorsal colour variable, ranging from red to light brown; spines on dorsal keeled scales varies from a light red-brown to a very dark brown-black. Males generally have stronger dorsal patterning than females. Flanks usually dark, sometimes with contrasting pale flecking or mottling. Ventral surface variable, from plain to mottling on head and gular region and in a few individuals the lateral portions of torso.

 

Comparison to other species. This distribution of T. einasleighensis sp. nov. appears not to overlap with any other Tympanocryptis species. It occupies the Einasleigh Uplands region of northern Queensland, with the closest sister taxa found over 180km away, to the south and west of Normanton (T. pentalineata, T. tetraporophora and T. intima). It can be distinguished from these species by the lack of five distinct longitudinal stripes (observed in T. pentalineata), lack of femoral pores (a key characteristic of T. tetraporophora) and scattered mucronate dorsal scales (normally in longitudinal rows in T. intima).

 

Habitat. Open eucalypt woodland on stony red rudosols or podosols, in rugged or undulating terrain.

 

Distribution. Currently known from several locations on the Einasleigh Uplands; along Richmond Rd and Inorunie Rd east of Croydon, Elizabeth Creek near Talaroo, the north-western area of Undara National Park and near Thornborough.

 

Etymology. Named for the bioregion this species occupies.

Tympanocryptis hobsoni sp. nov.

Hobson’s earless dragon

Holotype. QM J96313, male, Retro, Capella North, Queensland, Australia (-22.8606, 147.8763).

 

Paratypes. (8 specimens) QM J96314, male, Retro, Capella North, Queensland, Australia (-22.8604, 147.8761); QM J96315, male, Homelea Downs, north of Clermont, Queensland, Australia (-22.6918, 147.6768); NMV D77134, male, Homelea Downs, north of Clermont, Queensland, Australia (-22.6936, 147.6762); NMV D77135, female, Homelea Downs, north of Clermont, Queensland, Australia (-22.6948, 147.6776); QM J96317, male, Glendariwell, Gemfields, Queensland, Australia (-23.6034, 147.8247); NMV D77164, female, Glendariwell, Gemfields, Queensland, Australia (-23.6154, 147.8293); NMV D77136, male, Orana Downs, Orion, Queensland, Australia (-24.2579, 148.3510); QM J96316, female, Orana Downs, Orion, Queensland, Australia (-24.2597, 148.3468).

Description of holotype. SVL 51 mm. A medium-sized Tympanocryptis, with long limbs, a slender body, and somewhat dorsoventrally flattened skull with a blunt snout. Dorsal scales heterogeneous, with scattered enlarged scales; not imbricate. These enlarged scales are not imbricate, strongly keeled with keel terminating in spine and posterior edge of scales not raised. Small dorsal scales not imbricate, weakly keeled without terminating spine. Ventral scales are unkeeled on the head and neck, and weakly keeled on the torso. Narrow light grey dorsolateral stripes running from behind the eye to approximately a third of the way down the tail, gradually fading into background colour. Dorsolateral stripes approximately twice as wide as the vertebral stripe on the neck, narrowing to the same width as vertebral stripe on the back and tail. Continuous vertebral stripe running from neck to pelvis. Six dark brown-black dorsal crossbands between neck and base of tail, slightly narrower than pale background, disjunct across dorsal stripe. Approximately 12 dark bands on tail, approximately the same width as the intervening pale bands. Flanks with scattered cream flecks on dark background with a narrow pale lateral stripe. Dorsal surface of head strongly patterned with three dark transverse bars from supra-ocular region to snout; dark bars narrower than background colour; prominent white stripe from under eye to tympanum region. Ventral patterning absent. Pre-anal pores 2, femoral pores absent; gular fold present.

Variation. Table 1 (as Species B). Dorsolateral stripes variable, from narrow to wide and grey or cream; dorsolateral stripes often twice as wide and more prominent than vertebral stripe; dorsolateral stripes usually wider on neck becoming more narrow on back, often continuing anteriorly along neck onto head and culminating in ‘C’-shaped arc (bounded dorsally by black) to the dorso-posterior portion of the orbit. Length of dorsolateral stripes variable, terminating on first third of tail or sometimes continuing halfway down tail, while vertebral stripe terminates at pelvis. Lateral stripe usually narrow from axial to groin; although sometimes indistinct. Dorsal patterning consists of 5-6 dark crossbands usually similar width to pale crossbands but sometimes slightly narrower, usually disjunct across dorsal stripe. Dorsal head patterning usually strong although somewhat variable with some individuals having a diffuse dark transverse bars from supra-ocular region to snout and somewhat indistinct pale stripe from under eye to tympanum region. Ventral surface usually has mottling on head and gular region and in a few individuals the lateral portions of torso; some individuals lack ventral patterning. Males have longer tails and pre-anal pores can be difficult to distinguish in females.

 

Comparison to other species. The distribution of T. hobsoni sp. nov. is isolated from other Tympanocryptis taxa, with T. tetraporophora being the closest species (approximately 200 km to the west of the known range of T. hobsoni sp. nov.). However, T. hobsoni sp. nov. can easily be distinguished by the lack of femoral pores, compared with 2 femoral pores in T. tetraporophora. Additionally, T. hobsoni sp. nov. has an unusually long second toe on the hindlimbs (Table 1), compared with other Tympanocryptis species.

 

Habitat. Native grasslands or cropping fields (including wheat, sorghum and chickpea) on black vertosols.

 

Distribution. Currently known to exist in populations on cropping lands adjacent to the Dawson, Gregory, Capricorn and Peak Downs Highways on the Queensland Central Highlands, bordered by Orion in the south, Clermont in the north and Anakie in the west (Fig. 5).

 

Etymology. Named in recognition of the outstanding contributions of Rod Hobson to the conservation of Tympanocryptis species and Queensland herpetology, and his direct input into the collection and ecological understanding of this new species on the Central Highlands.

Tympanocryptis darlingensis sp. nov.

Darling earless dragon

Holotype. QM J96308 (formerly NMV D77151), male, Balonne Plains, south of St George, Queensland, Australia (-28.2638, 148.6748).

 

Paratypes. (9 specimens) NMV D77117, male, Stock route off Bollon Rd, Mitchell, Queensland, Australia (-26.4996, 147.9373); QM J96309, female, Stock route off Bollon Rd, Mitchell, Queensland, Australia (-26.4996, 147.9374); NMV D77147, male, Hortonvale, north of Cunnamulla, Queensland, Australia (-27.9525, 145.7368); QM J96311, male, Hortonvale, north of Cunnamulla, Queensland, Australia (-27.9482, 145.7405); QM J96310, female, Hortonvale, north of Cunnamulla, Queensland, Australia (-27.9463, 145.7376); NMV D77143, female, Hortonvale, north of Cunnamulla, Queensland, Australia (-27.9471, 145.7375); QM J96312, female, Balonne Plains, south of St George, Queensland, Australia (-28.2654, 148.6860); NMV D77153, female, Balonne Plains, south of St George, Queensland, Australia (-28.2654, 148.6838); NMV D77156, male, Myall Plains, Nindigully, Queensland, Australia (-28.3770, 148.6474).

Description of holotype. SVL 54 mm. A medium-sized Tympanocryptis, with a slender body and neck, moderately long limbs and tapered snout. Dorsal scales imbricate and heterogeneous, with scattered enlarged scales. These enlarged scales are strongly imbricate, strongly keeled with keel terminating in spine and posterior edge of scale very narrowly raised. Small dorsal scales weakly imbricate, weakly keeled without terminating spine. Ventral scales smooth to weakly keeled. Prominent light grey dorsolateral stripes running from the neck to approximately half way down tail, gradually fading into background colour, approximately same width as vertebral stripe. Continuous vertebral stripe running from neck to pelvis. Five dark brown-black dorsal crossbands between neck and base of tail, slightly narrow than intervening pale crossbands. Approximately 17 dark bands on tail, slightly wider than intervening pale bands. Flanks with scattered cream flecks on dark background with a narrow pale lateral stripe. Dorsal head patterning present with narrow pale supra-orbital bar. Ventral patterning present, with coarse grey mottling on the head tending for form linear white patches adjacent to jaw, faint grey mottling on upper chest and lateral areas of torso. Pre-anal pores: 2, femoral pores: 2; gular fold present.

Variation. Table 1 (as Species A). Dorsolateral stripes variable, from narrow to wide and grey or cream, often discontinuous where only visible on dark cross bands, approximately same width as vertebral stripe, which is often discontinuous or poorly defined. Length of dorsolateral stripes variable, terminating on first third of tail or sometimes continuing halfway down tail, while vertebral stripe terminates at pelvis. Usually a well-defined lateral stripe from axial to groin; although sometimes very narrow. Dorsal patterning consists of 5 dark crossbands usually wider than pale crossbands, often disjunct across dorsal stripe. Flanks from side of neck to base of tail has mottling often with dark dorsal crossbands terminating at pale lateral stripe. Dorsal head patterning present, usually with pale supra-ocular bar but sometimes very faint. Ventral surface usually has strong contrasting mottling on head and gular region and often the lateral portions of torso. Mottling on ventral surface of head is coarse and tends to form linear patches of white, towards gular region and adjacent to jaw. Some individuals have strong contrasting mottling extending onto the upper chest. Species has two femoral pores (one on each side), however, they are often difficult to find in females and sub-adults.

 

Comparison to other species. T. darlingensissp. nov., T. wilsoni and T.tetraporophora are morphologically very similar. Distribution and colour patterns are the key characters to distinguish T. darlingensis sp. nov. from the other two species. T. darlingensis sp. nov. is allopatric to T. wilsoni, which occurs east of Amby, QLD. The distribution of T. darlingensis sp. nov. is approximately~30km to the west, on the western side of the Maranoa River in Mitchell. These two species are very similar in appearance but can be somewhat distinguished based on colour and patterning,

T. darlingensissp. nov. is probably sympatric with T. tetraporophora, however samples of T. tetraporophora from the Darling Basin region may have been misidentified and may actually be T. darlingensis sp. nov. Body colour of T. darlingensis sp. nov. is generally slightly greyer or browner than the red-brown colour of T. tetraporophora from sympatric regions.

 

Habitat. Native grasslands or cropping fields (including wheat, sorghum and chickpea) on grey, brown or red-brown vertosols in Queensland. It is assumed to occupy similar habitat in New South Wales.

 

Distribution. The distribution of T. darlingensis sp. nov. is not yet fully understood but known to occur in the Mulga Lands and Darling Riverine Basin bioregions. Known locations from samples confirmed by molecular data include near Mitchell, Cunnamulla, St George and Nindigully in Queensland, and Lightning Ridge, Tilpa and White Cliffs in New South Wales (Fig. 4).

 

Etymology. Named for the Darling Riverine Plains and Darling Basin this species inhabits.

Aus fukdat

Hibbertia arenaria K.R.Thiele sp. nov.

Type: Western Australia [locality withheld for conservation reasons], 23 September 2001, J.W. Horn 4116 (holo: PERTH 06232922; iso: CANB, MEL).

Spreading to straggling shrubs to 0.5 m high; young branchlets comprising densely packed, thickened, pubescent, persistent leaf bases. Leaves erect at first then spreading, scattered, crowded at stem apices, oblong, 4–8 mm long, 1.4–2 mm wide, the margins strongly recurved to the thickened, prominent midrib, obscuring the abaxial lamina; adaxial surface not tuberculate, sparsely hairy to glabrous except for dense, curled-woolly hairs at base; abaxial surface {indumentum}; apex obtuse and pungently apiculate. Flowers sessile, terminal, closely subtended by crowded leaves; flower-subtending bracts 6–7, reddish-brown, scarious, narrowly triangular, acute, the primary bract 2.5–3.5 mm long. Sepals 5, ovate, 5–5.5 mm long, moderately to densely appressed-pubescent; midribs prominent; outer sepals pungently acuminate to shortly mucronate; inner sepals similar to the outer but less acuminate and broader. Petals 5, yellow, obovate, 5.5–8 mm long, deeply emarginate. Stamens 10, all on one side of the gynoecium, their filaments ±fused; anthers rectangular, c. 2 mm long, dehiscing by introrse, longitudinal slits. Staminodes absent. Carpels 2; ovaries compressed-globular, densely pubescent; styles curving excentrically from the carpel apex, 1.2–1.8 mm long. Ovules 4 per carpel. Fruiting carpels and seeds not seen.

Other specimens examined. WESTERN AUSTRALIA: [localities withheld for conservation reasons] 30 June 2005, G.F. Craig 6681 (PERTH 7313691); 23 Sep. 2001, J.W. Horn 4113 (PERTH 6232914); 24 Sep. 2001, J.W. Horn 4122 (PERTH 6232949); 8 Aug. 1978, D. Monk 326 (PERTH 3094065).

Diagnostic features. May be discriminated from all other species of Hibbertia in Western Australia by the combination of ericoid leaves, sessile flowers, silky sepals {check}, ten stamens and four ovules per carpel.

 

Phenology. Flowering specimens have been collected in June, August and September.

 

Distribution and habitat. Collected from scattered localities from west of Holt Rock eastwards towards 90 Mile Tank. Occurs on undulating plains on sandy, loamy or somewhat clayey soils over laterite, in proteaceous-myrtaceous kwongan heath dominated by species of Allocasuarina, Hakea, Melaleuca, Micromyrtus, Beaufortia, Banksia, Leptospermum, Isopogon, Petrophile and Callitris.

Conservation status. Hibbertia arenaria is known from only four localities, none of which is in a conservation reserve. A listing of Priority One under the Conservation Codes for Western Australian Flora (Smith and Jones, 2018) is recommended.

 

Etymology. From the Latin arenarius(a sandy place), in reference to the habitat in contradistinction to the rocky upland occupied by H. axillibarba.

 

Affinities. Hibbertia arenaria and H. axillibarba are superficially similar. They are very readily separated by their leaf shape: in H. arenaria the leaf margins are recurved to and closely abut the broad, prominent midrib, while in H. axillibarba the margins are recurved to each other (at least when dried) so that the midrib is hidden.

However, they are unlikely to be closely related. Ovule number appears to be conservative in natural groupings of Hibbertia; the two ovules of H. axillibarba and four in H. arenaria suggests that they are not close. Horn (2005) included H. arenaria in a molecular phylogeny of Hibbertia, where it grouped with H. ancistrotricha, a species that also has four ovules but a very different sepal indumentum (of hooked hairs), leaves that are obtuse and very shortly mucronate, and shortly pedicellate flowers. However, sampling of species in the Horn phylogeny was incomplete, and our knowledge of phylogenetic relationships in Hibbertiaremains preliminary.

Figure 1. Distribution of Hibbertia arenaria sp. nov. (circles) and H. axillibarba (star) in south-west Western Australia

References

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Harvey, F.S.B., Framenau, V.W., Wojcieszek, J.M., Rix, M.G. and Harvey, M.S. (2012). Molecular and morphological characterisation of new species in the trapdoor spider genus Aname (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Nemesiidae) from the Pilbara bioregion of Western Australia. Zootaxa 3383: 15–38. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.3383.1.3

 

Harvey, M.S., Gruber, K., Hillyer, M.J. and Huey, J.A. (submitted). Five new species of the open-holed trapdoor spider genus Aname (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Anamidae) from Western Australia, with a revised generic placement for Aname armigera. Records of the Western Australian Museum 00: 000-000.

 

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Raven, R.J. (1985a). A revision of the Aname pallida species-group in northern Australia (Anaminae: Nemesiidae: Araneae). Australian Journal of Zoology 33: 377–409. doi: 10.1071/zo9850377.

 

Raven, R.J. (1985b). The spider infraorder Mygalomorphae (Araneae): cladistics and systematics. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 182: 1–180.

 

Taxonomy Australia (2020). Discovering Our Biodiversity. Australian Academy of Science: Canberra.