New Australian Taxa

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ISSN: 2200-####

Hibbertia arenaria (Dilleniaceae), a new species from south-western Western Australia

K.R. Thiele

School of Biological Sciences, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley WA 6009

Western Australian Herbarium, Biodiversity and Conservation Science, Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions, Locked Bag 104, Bentley Delivery Centre, Western Australia 6983

Abstract

The new species Hibbertia arenaria K.R.Thiele sp. nov., comprising specimens formerly ascribed to H. aff. axillibarba J.R.Wheeler, is described. Hibbertia aranaria is restricted to sandplain habitats in the general vicinity of South Ironcap, on which H. axillibarba is endemic; the two species are clearly morphologically distinct.

Publication date and citation

Hibbertia axillibarba J.R.Wheeler was described based on four specimens, all from the summit and upper slopes of South Ironcap, a banded ironstone hill c. 40 km north of Lake King (Wheeler, 2000). Since publication, three further specimens have been collected, all from South Ironcap.

 

Four Hibbertia specimens collected from sandplains in the vicinity of South Ironcap were placed at the Western Australian Herbarium in H. aff. axillibarba. These constitute a species distinct from H. axillibarba, described here as H. arenaria.

Acknowledgments

I thank Francis Nge and Suzanne Prober for help during field work, Michael Hislop and Rob Davis from the Western Australian Herbarium for useful discussions on this and related Hibbertia species, and the DIrector and staff of the Western Australian Herbarium for access to material.

Taxonomy

Aname pulchella Harvey & Rix, sp. nov.

ZooBank LSID: http://zoobank.org/EditNomenclaturalAct/#####

 

Holotype: AUSTRALIA: Western Australia: Madura Caravan Park, 31°54’02"S, 127°01’14"E, 12 September 2017, J.M. Waldock, M.J. Hillyer, M.S. Harvey (WAM T144388).

 

Paratype: Australia: Western Australia: 1 male, Madura Caravan Park, 31°54’02"S, 127°01’14"E, 10 September 2017, M.J. Hillyer (WAM T144353).

Big & hairy. Spines. 8 eyes. All that good stuff.

Other material: Australia: Western Australia: 1 male, Dundas Nature Reserve, Mt Andrew Track, 32°30’57"S, 122°51’45”E, dry pitfall trap, mallee, 24 October 2009, S. Comer (WAM T101551); 1 male, Dundas Nature Reserve, Mt Andrew Track, 32°30`56"S, 122°51`43"E, October 2009, dry pitfall, S. Comer (WAM T101556).

SEQUENCE DATA

Intraspecific genetic divergence for this species was low, reaching only 0.?% at COI.

 

ETYMOLOGY

The species epithet refers to the beauty of this species (pulchellus, Latin, diminutive of pulchra, beautiful, pretty, fine, lovely) (Brown 1956).

Figure 2. Aname pulchella Harvey & Rix, sp. nov., holotype male (WAM T144388): A, cephalothorax, dorsal; B, abdomen, dorsal; C, eyes, dorsal; D, fovea, dorsal; E, sternum, ventral; F, cephalothorax, ventral; G, abdomen, ventral; H–L, left pedipalp: H, prolateral view; I, retrolateral view; J, tibia and tarsus, prolateral view; K, tibia and tarsus, ventral view; L, tibia and tarsus, retrolateral view; M–P, left leg I: M, prolateral view; N, tibia I, prolateral view; O, tibia I, retrolateral view; P, metatarsus I, prolateral view. Scale lines = 2 mm.

Tympanocryptis einasleighensis sp. nov.

Einasleigh earless dragon

Holotype. QM J96318, male, Richmond Rd, north of Esmeralda, Queensland, Australia (-18.5672, 145.5626).

 

Paratypes. (7 specimens) NMV D77187, male, Richmond Rd, north of Esmeralda, Queensland, Australia (-18.5649, 142.5646); QM J96320, male, Richmond Rd, north of Esmeralda, Queensland, Australia (-18.5645, 142.5651); QM J96322, male, Richmond Rd, north of Esmeralda, Queensland, Australia (-18.5616, 142.5682); NMV D74081, female, Richmond Rd, north of Esmeralda, Queensland, Australia (-18.5619, 142.5678); QM J96319, female, Richmond Rd, north of Esmeralda, Queensland, Australia (-18.5675, 142.5625); QM J96321, female, Richmond Rd, north of Esmeralda, Queensland, Australia (-18.5645, 142.5651); NMV D77265, female, Thornborough Rd, south of Thornborough, Queensland, Australia (-16.9991, 145.0312).

Description of holotype. SVL 54 mm. A medium-sized Tympanocryptis, with a stocky shape; short limbs, a round body, long head and blunt snout. Dorsal scales heterogeneous, with scattered enlarged scales; weakly imbricate. Enlarged scales are weakly imbricate, strongly keeled with keel terminating in weak spine; posterior edge of scale very narrowly raised. Small dorsal scales weakly imbricate, weakly to strongly keeled without terminating spine. Ventral scales weakly keeled. Indistinct, broken dorsolateral stripes running from the shoulders to pelvis. Vertebral stripe absent. Indistinct, diffuse crossbands between neck and base of tail, narrower than background colour. Approximately 12 dark bands on tail, narrower than intervening pale bands. Flanks with scattered cream flecks on darker background; lacking distinct lateral stripe. Dorsal head patterning weak and indistinct; lacks pale supra-orbital bar. Ventral patterning present; fine grey speckling under chin, extending posteriorly onto throat; lacks speckling on torso. Pre-anal pores 2, femoral pores absent; gular fold present.

Variation. Table 1 (as Species C). Vertebral, dorsolateral and lateral stripes usually absent. Broken, indistinct dorsolateral stripes in some individuals from the neck up to 1/3 of the way down the tail. If dorsal patterning present, consists of 5-6 dark narrow crossbands, poorly defined a much narrower than intervening pale background colour. Dorsal surface of head weakly or not patterned, sometimes with faint pale supra-ocular bar. Dorsal colour variable, ranging from red to light brown; spines on dorsal keeled scales varies from a light red-brown to a very dark brown-black. Males generally have stronger dorsal patterning than females. Flanks usually dark, sometimes with contrasting pale flecking or mottling. Ventral surface variable, from plain to mottling on head and gular region and in a few individuals the lateral portions of torso.

 

Comparison to other species. This distribution of T. einasleighensis sp. nov. appears not to overlap with any other Tympanocryptis species. It occupies the Einasleigh Uplands region of northern Queensland, with the closest sister taxa found over 180km away, to the south and west of Normanton (T. pentalineata, T. tetraporophora and T. intima). It can be distinguished from these species by the lack of five distinct longitudinal stripes (observed in T. pentalineata), lack of femoral pores (a key characteristic of T. tetraporophora) and scattered mucronate dorsal scales (normally in longitudinal rows in T. intima).

 

Habitat. Open eucalypt woodland on stony red rudosols or podosols, in rugged or undulating terrain.

 

Distribution. Currently known from several locations on the Einasleigh Uplands; along Richmond Rd and Inorunie Rd east of Croydon, Elizabeth Creek near Talaroo, the north-western area of Undara National Park and near Thornborough.

 

Etymology. Named for the bioregion this species occupies.

Tympanocryptis hobsoni sp. nov.

Hobson’s earless dragon

Holotype. QM J96313, male, Retro, Capella North, Queensland, Australia (-22.8606, 147.8763).

 

Paratypes. (8 specimens) QM J96314, male, Retro, Capella North, Queensland, Australia (-22.8604, 147.8761); QM J96315, male, Homelea Downs, north of Clermont, Queensland, Australia (-22.6918, 147.6768); NMV D77134, male, Homelea Downs, north of Clermont, Queensland, Australia (-22.6936, 147.6762); NMV D77135, female, Homelea Downs, north of Clermont, Queensland, Australia (-22.6948, 147.6776); QM J96317, male, Glendariwell, Gemfields, Queensland, Australia (-23.6034, 147.8247); NMV D77164, female, Glendariwell, Gemfields, Queensland, Australia (-23.6154, 147.8293); NMV D77136, male, Orana Downs, Orion, Queensland, Australia (-24.2579, 148.3510); QM J96316, female, Orana Downs, Orion, Queensland, Australia (-24.2597, 148.3468).

Description of holotype. SVL 51 mm. A medium-sized Tympanocryptis, with long limbs, a slender body, and somewhat dorsoventrally flattened skull with a blunt snout. Dorsal scales heterogeneous, with scattered enlarged scales; not imbricate. These enlarged scales are not imbricate, strongly keeled with keel terminating in spine and posterior edge of scales not raised. Small dorsal scales not imbricate, weakly keeled without terminating spine. Ventral scales are unkeeled on the head and neck, and weakly keeled on the torso. Narrow light grey dorsolateral stripes running from behind the eye to approximately a third of the way down the tail, gradually fading into background colour. Dorsolateral stripes approximately twice as wide as the vertebral stripe on the neck, narrowing to the same width as vertebral stripe on the back and tail. Continuous vertebral stripe running from neck to pelvis. Six dark brown-black dorsal crossbands between neck and base of tail, slightly narrower than pale background, disjunct across dorsal stripe. Approximately 12 dark bands on tail, approximately the same width as the intervening pale bands. Flanks with scattered cream flecks on dark background with a narrow pale lateral stripe. Dorsal surface of head strongly patterned with three dark transverse bars from supra-ocular region to snout; dark bars narrower than background colour; prominent white stripe from under eye to tympanum region. Ventral patterning absent. Pre-anal pores 2, femoral pores absent; gular fold present.

Variation. Table 1 (as Species B). Dorsolateral stripes variable, from narrow to wide and grey or cream; dorsolateral stripes often twice as wide and more prominent than vertebral stripe; dorsolateral stripes usually wider on neck becoming more narrow on back, often continuing anteriorly along neck onto head and culminating in ‘C’-shaped arc (bounded dorsally by black) to the dorso-posterior portion of the orbit. Length of dorsolateral stripes variable, terminating on first third of tail or sometimes continuing halfway down tail, while vertebral stripe terminates at pelvis. Lateral stripe usually narrow from axial to groin; although sometimes indistinct. Dorsal patterning consists of 5-6 dark crossbands usually similar width to pale crossbands but sometimes slightly narrower, usually disjunct across dorsal stripe. Dorsal head patterning usually strong although somewhat variable with some individuals having a diffuse dark transverse bars from supra-ocular region to snout and somewhat indistinct pale stripe from under eye to tympanum region. Ventral surface usually has mottling on head and gular region and in a few individuals the lateral portions of torso; some individuals lack ventral patterning. Males have longer tails and pre-anal pores can be difficult to distinguish in females.

 

Comparison to other species. The distribution of T. hobsoni sp. nov. is isolated from other Tympanocryptis taxa, with T. tetraporophora being the closest species (approximately 200 km to the west of the known range of T. hobsoni sp. nov.). However, T. hobsoni sp. nov. can easily be distinguished by the lack of femoral pores, compared with 2 femoral pores in T. tetraporophora. Additionally, T. hobsoni sp. nov. has an unusually long second toe on the hindlimbs (Table 1), compared with other Tympanocryptis species.

 

Habitat. Native grasslands or cropping fields (including wheat, sorghum and chickpea) on black vertosols.

 

Distribution. Currently known to exist in populations on cropping lands adjacent to the Dawson, Gregory, Capricorn and Peak Downs Highways on the Queensland Central Highlands, bordered by Orion in the south, Clermont in the north and Anakie in the west (Fig. 5).

 

Etymology. Named in recognition of the outstanding contributions of Rod Hobson to the conservation of Tympanocryptis species and Queensland herpetology, and his direct input into the collection and ecological understanding of this new species on the Central Highlands.

Tympanocryptis darlingensis sp. nov.

Darling earless dragon

Holotype. QM J96308 (formerly NMV D77151), male, Balonne Plains, south of St George, Queensland, Australia (-28.2638, 148.6748).

 

Paratypes. (9 specimens) NMV D77117, male, Stock route off Bollon Rd, Mitchell, Queensland, Australia (-26.4996, 147.9373); QM J96309, female, Stock route off Bollon Rd, Mitchell, Queensland, Australia (-26.4996, 147.9374); NMV D77147, male, Hortonvale, north of Cunnamulla, Queensland, Australia (-27.9525, 145.7368); QM J96311, male, Hortonvale, north of Cunnamulla, Queensland, Australia (-27.9482, 145.7405); QM J96310, female, Hortonvale, north of Cunnamulla, Queensland, Australia (-27.9463, 145.7376); NMV D77143, female, Hortonvale, north of Cunnamulla, Queensland, Australia (-27.9471, 145.7375); QM J96312, female, Balonne Plains, south of St George, Queensland, Australia (-28.2654, 148.6860); NMV D77153, female, Balonne Plains, south of St George, Queensland, Australia (-28.2654, 148.6838); NMV D77156, male, Myall Plains, Nindigully, Queensland, Australia (-28.3770, 148.6474).

Description of holotype. SVL 54 mm. A medium-sized Tympanocryptis, with a slender body and neck, moderately long limbs and tapered snout. Dorsal scales imbricate and heterogeneous, with scattered enlarged scales. These enlarged scales are strongly imbricate, strongly keeled with keel terminating in spine and posterior edge of scale very narrowly raised. Small dorsal scales weakly imbricate, weakly keeled without terminating spine. Ventral scales smooth to weakly keeled. Prominent light grey dorsolateral stripes running from the neck to approximately half way down tail, gradually fading into background colour, approximately same width as vertebral stripe. Continuous vertebral stripe running from neck to pelvis. Five dark brown-black dorsal crossbands between neck and base of tail, slightly narrow than intervening pale crossbands. Approximately 17 dark bands on tail, slightly wider than intervening pale bands. Flanks with scattered cream flecks on dark background with a narrow pale lateral stripe. Dorsal head patterning present with narrow pale supra-orbital bar. Ventral patterning present, with coarse grey mottling on the head tending for form linear white patches adjacent to jaw, faint grey mottling on upper chest and lateral areas of torso. Pre-anal pores: 2, femoral pores: 2; gular fold present.

Variation. Table 1 (as Species A). Dorsolateral stripes variable, from narrow to wide and grey or cream, often discontinuous where only visible on dark cross bands, approximately same width as vertebral stripe, which is often discontinuous or poorly defined. Length of dorsolateral stripes variable, terminating on first third of tail or sometimes continuing halfway down tail, while vertebral stripe terminates at pelvis. Usually a well-defined lateral stripe from axial to groin; although sometimes very narrow. Dorsal patterning consists of 5 dark crossbands usually wider than pale crossbands, often disjunct across dorsal stripe. Flanks from side of neck to base of tail has mottling often with dark dorsal crossbands terminating at pale lateral stripe. Dorsal head patterning present, usually with pale supra-ocular bar but sometimes very faint. Ventral surface usually has strong contrasting mottling on head and gular region and often the lateral portions of torso. Mottling on ventral surface of head is coarse and tends to form linear patches of white, towards gular region and adjacent to jaw. Some individuals have strong contrasting mottling extending onto the upper chest. Species has two femoral pores (one on each side), however, they are often difficult to find in females and sub-adults.

 

Comparison to other species. T. darlingensissp. nov., T. wilsoni and T.tetraporophora are morphologically very similar. Distribution and colour patterns are the key characters to distinguish T. darlingensis sp. nov. from the other two species. T. darlingensis sp. nov. is allopatric to T. wilsoni, which occurs east of Amby, QLD. The distribution of T. darlingensis sp. nov. is approximately~30km to the west, on the western side of the Maranoa River in Mitchell. These two species are very similar in appearance but can be somewhat distinguished based on colour and patterning,

T. darlingensissp. nov. is probably sympatric with T. tetraporophora, however samples of T. tetraporophora from the Darling Basin region may have been misidentified and may actually be T. darlingensis sp. nov. Body colour of T. darlingensis sp. nov. is generally slightly greyer or browner than the red-brown colour of T. tetraporophora from sympatric regions.

 

Habitat. Native grasslands or cropping fields (including wheat, sorghum and chickpea) on grey, brown or red-brown vertosols in Queensland. It is assumed to occupy similar habitat in New South Wales.

 

Distribution. The distribution of T. darlingensis sp. nov. is not yet fully understood but known to occur in the Mulga Lands and Darling Riverine Basin bioregions. Known locations from samples confirmed by molecular data include near Mitchell, Cunnamulla, St George and Nindigully in Queensland, and Lightning Ridge, Tilpa and White Cliffs in New South Wales (Fig. 4).

 

Etymology. Named for the Darling Riverine Plains and Darling Basin this species inhabits.

Aus fukdat

Hibbertia arenaria K.R.Thiele sp. nov.

Type: Western Australia [locality withheld for conservation reasons], 23 September 2001, J.W. Horn 4116 (holo: PERTH 06232922; iso: CANB, MEL).

Spreading to straggling shrubs to 0.5 m high; young branchlets comprising densely packed, thickened, pubescent, persistent leaf bases. Leaves erect at first then spreading, scattered, crowded at stem apices, oblong, 4–8 mm long, 1.4–2 mm wide, the margins strongly recurved to the thickened, prominent midrib, obscuring the abaxial lamina; adaxial surface not tuberculate, sparsely hairy to glabrous except for dense, curled-woolly hairs at base; abaxial surface {indumentum}; apex obtuse and pungently apiculate. Flowers sessile, terminal, closely subtended by crowded leaves; flower-subtending bracts 6–7, reddish-brown, scarious, narrowly triangular, acute, the primary bract 2.5–3.5 mm long. Sepals 5, ovate, 5–5.5 mm long, moderately to densely appressed-pubescent; midribs prominent; outer sepals pungently acuminate to shortly mucronate; inner sepals similar to the outer but less acuminate and broader. Petals 5, yellow, obovate, 5.5–8 mm long, deeply emarginate. Stamens 10, all on one side of the gynoecium, their filaments ±fused; anthers rectangular, c. 2 mm long, dehiscing by introrse, longitudinal slits. Staminodes absent. Carpels 2; ovaries compressed-globular, densely pubescent; styles curving excentrically from the carpel apex, 1.2–1.8 mm long. Ovules 4 per carpel. Fruiting carpels and seeds not seen.

Other specimens examined. WESTERN AUSTRALIA: [localities withheld for conservation reasons] 30 June 2005, G.F. Craig 6681 (PERTH 7313691); 23 Sep. 2001, J.W. Horn 4113 (PERTH 6232914); 24 Sep. 2001, J.W. Horn 4122 (PERTH 6232949); 8 Aug. 1978, D. Monk 326 (PERTH 3094065).

Diagnostic features. May be discriminated from all other species of Hibbertia in Western Australia by the combination of ericoid leaves, sessile flowers, silky sepals {check}, ten stamens and four ovules per carpel.

 

Phenology. Flowering specimens have been collected in June, August and September.

 

Distribution and habitat. Collected from scattered localities from west of Holt Rock eastwards towards 90 Mile Tank. Occurs on undulating plains on sandy, loamy or somewhat clayey soils over laterite, in proteaceous-myrtaceous kwongan heath dominated by species of Allocasuarina, Hakea, Melaleuca, Micromyrtus, Beaufortia, Banksia, Leptospermum, Isopogon, Petrophile and Callitris.

Conservation status. Hibbertia arenaria is known from only four localities, none of which is in a conservation reserve. A listing of Priority One under the Conservation Codes for Western Australian Flora (Smith and Jones, 2018) is recommended.

 

Etymology. From the Latin arenarius(a sandy place), in reference to the habitat in contradistinction to the rocky upland occupied by H. axillibarba.

 

Affinities. Hibbertia arenaria and H. axillibarba are superficially similar. They are very readily separated by their leaf shape: in H. arenaria the leaf margins are recurved to and closely abut the broad, prominent midrib, while in H. axillibarba the margins are recurved to each other (at least when dried) so that the midrib is hidden.

However, they are unlikely to be closely related. Ovule number appears to be conservative in natural groupings of Hibbertia; the two ovules of H. axillibarba and four in H. arenaria suggests that they are not close. Horn (2005) included H. arenaria in a molecular phylogeny of Hibbertia, where it grouped with H. ancistrotricha, a species that also has four ovules but a very different sepal indumentum (of hooked hairs), leaves that are obtuse and very shortly mucronate, and shortly pedicellate flowers. However, sampling of species in the Horn phylogeny was incomplete, and our knowledge of phylogenetic relationships in Hibbertiaremains preliminary.

Figure 1. Distribution of Hibbertia arenaria sp. nov. (circles) and H. axillibarba (star) in south-west Western Australia

References

Horn, J.W. (2005). The phylogenetics and structural botany of Dilleniaceae and Hibbertia Andrews. (PhD thesis: Duke University.)

 

Smith, M.G. & Jones, A. (2018). Threatened and Priority Flora list 5 December 2018. Department of Biodiversity,

 

Conservation and Attractions. https://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au/plants-and-animals/threatened-species-and-communities/threatened-plants [accessed 17 June 2018].

 

Wheeler, J.R. (2000). Review of Hibbertia mucronata and its allies (Dilleniaceae). Nuytsia 13(2): 379–394.